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how do solar panels work

Before let you know how to make a solar panel, let us understand “What are solar panels?”

Solar panels use silicone cells to capture sunlight and turn the electrons into energy which we can use for electricity. With so many methods for generating electricity either through renewable or non-renewable methods, solar panels are a fantastic way to utilize earths free access to energy since the sun tends to provide us with more energy than our planet needs.

how to make a solar panel

Okay, so back to “How to Make a Solar Panel”, there are several steps.

Step 1, Shop for and buy the silicon cells. There are many types of solar cells with different efficiency on the markets, usually we choose mono-crystalline solar cells for small wattage applications, the cell size is 125mm x 125mm, 3.2 Watt per cell, the efficiency is 19.6%.

Step 2, Drawing up a sketch of the solar panel. The sketch should contain the dimensions of the solar panel, the output power and voltage. For example, let us make it 20 Watt 18V Mono-crystalline Solar Panel, the dimensions can be 430mm x 280mm x 3mm. We are going to make it semi-flexible PET laminated Solar Panel, that is why the thickness is 3mm.

Step 3, Cutting the Silicone Cells. For making the voltage be 18V, we must cut 36 pieces small cells to meet the specification of the solar panel. Usually we use the Cells Cutting Machine to do that because this is really a precise job and the cell is easily cracked.

Step 4, Wiring the Solar Cells together. Each cell will have a negative and a positive lead running out of it. Take some spare wiring, split one end into its respective leads and strip away the insulation from the ends. Match the leads for each cell and join them with wire nuts. Usually we solder the cells together in series by the Solar Cells Tabber and Stringer, you can use hand soldering instead of this machine.

Step 5, Preparing the Padding Materials for lamination. We have to prepare the padding materials before lamination. For example, we put 3 pieces EVA on the back of cells and 3 pieces on the front of cells, and TPT panel as the back sheet, PET material as the surface.

Hovall PET Laminated Photovoltaic Module Diagram

Step 6, Heating Padding Materials until it melts, you then need to cool in a way that forms one long. This is very hard to do and often impurities and imperfections occur and the silicon cannot be used. Usually we do this step by our professional lamination machines.

Step 7, Cutting the laminated solar panel that matches your dimensions. You can use a hand saw and tape measure to do that. Usually we do that with our cutting laser machine.

Step 8, Assembling the USB output on the back of solar panel.

This is just an example for making the PET laminated solar panels. If you have any questions about how to make a solar panel or anything concerns, please just email us at


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